Most households of plant-eating dinosaurs developed particular variations to assist them deal with their meat-eating adversaries. Some, like Triceratops, developed huge horns that made them too harmful to assault. Others developed bony fits of spiky armour that turned them into strolling fortresses. A number of others developed light-weight our bodies and extra-long legs that gave them the pace to reliably outrun predators. However one group has all the time appeared nearly defenseless: the hadrosaurs—higher often known as the duck-billed dinosaurs.
What’s a “Duck-Billed” Dinosaur?
Hadrosaurs have been a household of dinosaurs which can be generally referred to as “duck-billed” dinosaurs. Are you able to guess why? Sure, it’s as a result of they usually had flat, vast mouths that seemed like a duck’s invoice! These giant animals lived in the course of the Late Cretaceous Interval, proper up till the extinction of all non-bird dinosaurs. They grew fairly giant, ate vegetation, and generally had hanging crests on their heads, the aim of which remains to be debated by paleontologists.
Listing of Duck-Billed Dinosaurs
Out of all of the hadrosaurs (also called the duck-billed dinosaurs), Parasaurolophus is without doubt one of the most widely known thanks to its very distinctive cranium crest. The identify Parasaurolophus is a little bit of a mouthful, however that is based mostly on the early interpretation that Parasaurolophus was much like one other genus names Saurolophus, as a result of Saurolophus additionally has a cranium crest, although not as giant or as ornate as Parasaurolophus.
Nevertheless, underneath trendy systematics, Parasaurolophus is classed as a lambeosaurine hadrosaurid due to the hole crest,whereas Saurolophus is the sort genus of the Saurolophinae (beforehand Hadrosaurinae) a sister group of hadrosaurids famous for having strong to no crests in any respect.
Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus skeleton on show on the Subject Museum of Pure Historical past, in Chicago.
Iguanodon is an ornithopod dinosaur, roughly midway between the early hypsilophodontids and their closing end result within the duck-billed dinosaurs. They lived between 120 to 140 million years in the past, within the Barremian to Valanginian ages of the early Cretaceous time, although one unknown species is from the late Jurassic. Its most attribute function was a big razor-sharp thumb, doubtless used for protection from predators.
The varied Iguanodon species are giant herbivores, starting from 6 to 11 metres (20 to 36 toes) in size, and averaging about 5 tonnes (5.5 tons) in weight.
Weight-reduction plan: Herbivore.
Dimension: About 6 meters lengthy.
Time interval: Cenomanian to Campanian of the Cretaceous.
A typical Bactrosaurus would have been 6.2 m (20 ft) lengthy and weighed 1.2 metric tons (1.3 quick tons). It was an early relative of Lambeosaurus and exhibits quite a lot of iguanodont-like options, together with three stacked tooth for every seen tooth, small maxillary tooth, and an unusually highly effective construct for a hadrosaur. It exhibits options intermediate between these of the 2 important hadrosaurid teams. Its femur measured 80 centimetres (2.6 ft) lengthy.
Bactrosaurus was initially regarded as a lambeosaurine hadrosaurid, supposedly the oldest and most primitive recognized, and its crestless head was seen as an anomaly. A 1990 standard ebook instructed that it had an incompletely preserved crest, however latest research place Bactrosaurus as a extra basal hadrosauromorph. Basal members don’t protect hole crests, so Bactrosaurus itself is more likely to be crestless.
The Restored Akeleton Displayed on the Hong Kong Science Museum
Corythosaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaur dinosaurs that lived within the Late Cretaceous interval. Its identify means “Helmet lizard”. It’s also recognized by the incorrectly spelled identify, Carninthosaurus in The Misplaced World: Jurassic Park script and media.
Within the sport, Jurassic Park: Explorer, the next data is given about this creature:
Corythosaurus had a whole bunch of small interlocking tooth behind its jaw, permitting it to crush and grind plant matter. The bony crest on prime of its head contained its nasal passage and should have been used as a sounding system.
Corythosaurus on the Carnegie Museum of Pure Historical past
Edmontosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaurs. It comprises two recognized species: Edmontosaurus regalis and Edmontosaurus annectens. Fossils of E. regalis have been present in rocks of western North America that date from the late Campanian stage of the Cretaceous Interval 73 million years in the past, whereas these of E. annectens have been present in the identical geographic area however in rocks dated to the top of the Maastrichtian stage of the Cretaceous, 66 million years in the past. Edmontosaurus was one of many final non-avian dinosaurs and lived alongside dinosaurs like Triceratops, Tyrannosaurus, Ankylosaurus, and Pachycephalosaurus shortly earlier than the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction occasion.
Edmontosaurus included a few of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring as much as 12 metres (39 ft) lengthy and weighing round 5.6 metric tons (6.2 quick tons) in common asymptotic physique mass, though some people would have been bigger.A number of well-preserved specimens are recognized that embody not solely bones, however in some instances intensive pores and skin impressions and potential intestine contents. It’s categorized as a genus of saurolophine (or hadrosaurine) hadrosaurid, a member of the group of hadrosaurids which lacked giant, hole crests, as a substitute having smaller strong crests or fleshy combs.
Maiasaura was a herbivore. It lived within the Cretaceous interval and inhabited North America. Its fossils have been present in locations similar to Montana.
This dinosaur was named “The Good Mom” as a result of there’s proof that she taken care of her nest of eggs very effectively. And her fossil was discovered amongst an entire space of nests, all clustered collectively, like a mass incubation floor. She was excavated in Montana throughout 1979.
Large Mama weighed in at round 4 tons, with a nostril to tail tip measurement of some 30 toes, and stood not less than eight toes on the shoulder. Montana should have been a really wealthy atmosphere on the time, wealthy sufficient to help a whole bunch of duck-billed plant eaters like Maiasaura, with large appetites, and facet tooth that might course of monumental quantities of plant materials.
The dinosaur was named by Yuri Bolotsky and Sergei Kurzanov within the 12 months 1991. The stays of the dinosaur have been discovered close to the Amur area therefore giving it the identify Amurosaurus. Amurosaurus is predicated on partial stays present in a bonebed of a number of dinosaurs, which signifies that there should be extra stays for the dinosaur someplace. Finding out the fossil stays for the dinosaur, it was described as a lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur recognized for its hole crest, much like the Corythosaurus of North America. Amurosaurus was the proof of a lambeosaurine hadrosaurid residing in Asia close to the top of the Cretaceous interval, when the identical species was getting extinct from North America, apart from the strong to no crested saurolophine hadrosaurid. This proves the idea that the lambeosaurines developed in Asia after which crossed over to North America through a land bridge.
Fossil bones of grownup Amurosaurus are extraordinarily uncommon to search out, however the small quantity of fabric that has been discovered exhibits that Amurosaurus was about 12 meters lengthy.
Duplicate of Amurosaurus at Brussels
Tsintaosaurus (“Qingdao lizard”, after the previous transliteration “Tsingtao”) is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Interval of China. It reached lengths of as much as 27 toes lengthy and weighed as much as 2.5 tons, or 5,000 kilos.
A hadrosaur, Tsintaosaurus had a attribute ‘duck invoice’ snout and a battery of highly effective tooth which it used to chew vegetation. Tsintaosaurus, like most hadrosaurs, most likely traveled in herds and was semi-quadrupedal and bipedal, which means it might probably stroll and run on two legs and 4 legs underneath sure instances.
Like many hadrosaurs, Tsintaosaurus sported a crest on its head. It was initially believed to level ahead from its brow, giving it the nickname “Unicorn of the Cretaceous”. More moderen discoveries recommend the crest as a substitute pointed backwards and was corresponding to its shut relative, Lambeosaurus.
Anatotitan was a big, duck-billed dinosaur about 33 toes (10 m) lengthy and eight toes (2.5 m) tall on the hips; it weighed roughly 5 tons (7300 kg) – about as huge as a bus. It was similar to Edmontosaurus, however it was extra calmly constructed and had longer legs.
Anatotitan had quick arms, a protracted, pointy tail, three hoofed toes, mitten-like arms, a flat, sloping head with a large, toothless beak, cheek pouches, and a whole bunch of closely-packed cheek tooth (for grinding plant materials).
Anatotitan was a biped (it walked on two legs) however it might additionally stroll on 4 legs, maybe to graze low-lying vegetation. Anatotitan was most likely a comparatively slow-moving dinosaur with few defenses however could have had eager senses (eyesight, listening to, and scent) to assist it keep away from predators.
Saurolophus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaurs that lived in the course of the Late Cretaceous interval. Its fossils have been present in North America and Mongolia.
They have been plant eaters and will transfer on two or 4 toes, although their rear toes have been longer than their arms. There may be hypothesis that their spike was hooked up to a flap of pores and skin that coated the nostrils and might be blown up for shows and noise-making.
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